Citicoline (also called cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine, cdp-choline) is a nootropic supplement that is an essential intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of structural phospholipids in cell membranes, particularly phosphatidylcholine. It is believed to be a brain enhancing supplement that increases mental focus and cognitive health. It has also been shown to be beneficial over time in brain injury, stroke patients, and those who suffer from Parkinson's disease.
Citicoline crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches the central nervous system, where it is incorporated into the membrane. It increases brain metabolism and acts upon different neurotransmitters within the body. It has been shown to increase norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the central nervous system.
Citicoline Superior to Choline
Citicoline is thought to be superior to choline because it is easily absorbed into the body, it is able to pass the blood-brain barrier, and more effective at raising choline levels within the brain.
Supplementation with citicoline is thought to improve cognition and neurological recovery. This has been seen in various conditions including traumatic brain injuries, stroke, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, and aging. Citicoline is well documented to be safe and there is growing evidence of its benefits for improving brain function and nerve functionality. It may also help with addiction recovery.
Citicoline Powerful Nootropic
Citicoline is known to be a very powerful used nootropic supplement when it comes to enhancing specific aspects of cognition. It has been shown to actually enhance the effects of other nootropics. Many people who regularly use nootropics believe that citicoline is a key ingredient of their nootropic stack.
Citicoline serves as a precursor to uridine. Uridine is responsible for regulating synaptic strength, neuronal connectivity, and brain cell maturation. Uridine is also actively involved in the synthesis of RNA. RNA is the molecule responsible for the coding, decoding, and expression of various genes within the body.
The destruction of dopamine nerve cells in Parkinson's illness causes muscle tightness, trembling, and other signs. In rats with Parkinson's disease, citicoline relieved muscle stiffness by raising the levels of dopamine in the brain. It also improved the results of basic treatment of inflammatory damage of the outer nerve sheet, myelin. This can trigger sclerosis with severe physical and cognitive disabilities.
The addition of citicoline to an antidepressant drug (citalopram) improved anxiety signs and recovery in a study with 50 clients  In rats, CDP-choline raised noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin levels in the brain centers for memory, feelings, and movement [59, 60] Citicoline lowered depression in 60 methamphetamines (meth) addicts but didn't impact substance abuse (2,000 mg/day for 3 months).
In over 130 cocaine addicts with bipolar illness, citicoline (500 2,000 mg for 3 months) minimized substance abuse but didn't affect mood. However, it produced no results in a trial of 20 heavy drug users. An evaluation of nine trials concluded that citicoline may offer mild advantages for substance dependency, particularly drugs, but underlined the requirement for more powerful clinical evidence.
As with all supplements, you really need to discover what works best for your personal needs. Most of the research shows benefit from 250 mg three times per day with a maximum dosage of 1000 mg per day. The studies were done over a period of a year so improvements may be slow in developing.
One study followed Parkinson's patients for up to 18 months and their conclusion was that Parkinson's progression was delayed with supplementation.
Thus, to sum it all up, citicoline is a superior dietary nootropic that may be able to improve cognition, help people with Parkinson's disease or who have suffered a stroke, and individuals who struggle with addiction.